National Public Education
9Sep/170

“Endangering Prosperity” by Eric Hanushek

Eric Hanushek et al. have written an excellent book on the economic implications of our weak public education system.  The authors put to rest many of the popular misconceptions about the schools.

First, just to review what everyone knows, on an international test of student achievement, such as the PISA exams (Program for International Student Assessment), the US ranks 32nd out of the 68 countries tested in math in 2011, in other words, just about at the bottom of the list of developed European and Asian countries.  The results are only slightly better for English skills.  All this is well known.

What is not so well known is that this poor showing is not caused by our diverse population.  All our students do poorly, rich and poor.  Among white students whose parents are college educated, less than half are at a proficient level in math, putting them below all the students, minorities included, in 16 other countries.  Our best students are nowhere near as good as the best students in many other counties.  Among white students in the US, only 9% performed at an advanced level, putting us, again, at the bottom of the developed world.  The problems of our educational system are not limited to our poor and minority communities.

As Hanushek points out, the US is not the only diverse country.  Canada, for example, has a similar level of diversity, but does much better than us educationally.  They also are a big country spread over a wide area, yet still seem to find a way to educate everyone.  It is not just the small homogenous countries that do well.

What Hanushek is worried about is that there is no doubt that these educational problems will affect our economy.  There can be no argument that educational level does not have an effect on economic growth.  The chart is right there on page 24 of this book.  All the countries with high test scores also have high rates of economic growth from 1960 to 2009.  And those with low test scores have low rates of growth.  The US is, again, about in the middle, below most of the wealthy countries in the world.

The authors also show that it is not simply the amount of money spent on education, or even the number of years of schooling offered, that makes a difference.  Strangely enough, it is how much the students actually learn that matters.  This is what is correlated with economic growth.

All this bodes ill for the future of US prosperity.  We are in trouble.  As Hanushek points out, many of our economic gains over the past two centuries have been linked to non-educational factors, such as our natural resources and our traditional support for new and innovative businesses.  And we also had an educational system that included a higher percentage of our population than any other country.  But none of this is still true today.  The rest of the world has caught up with us, and they have done so by educating their children to a higher level.  That is what we need to do if we want to continue to grow.

All this needs to be read by a wider audience.  The data in a book like this, written by professional economists, ought to be read by every state legislator and every member of the state departments of education, not to mention the federal Secretary of Education.  They are the ones in charge of our schools; it is up to them to find a way to improve them.  If they cannot do this, they need to be replaced by someone who can.

The only problem I have with this book is that Hanushek then blames teachers and particularly the teachers’ unions for these problems, saying that teachers have uniformly opposed innovations in public education, such as vouchers and charter schools.

This may be true, but they oppose them for good reason.  Is there any evidence that these quasi-private schemes will ever improve the public school system?  Can we really make a public program better by making it more private?   Does that make sense?  Regardless of how well each one does, these schemes cannot solve the overall problem, since they have no way to address the entire public program.  They only work because they are separate from the rest of the program.  That is not a viable solution.

Still, I am thankful that Mr. Hanushek has written such a good book on the realities of the link between public education and economic prosperity.

Peter Dodington

September 9, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12Aug/170

Equity Versus Improvement in the School System

Recently there have been many articles in the press about how Secretary of Education DeVos will "destroy" the public schools if she is allowed to continue her privatization efforts.  I fully agree with this point of view.  It seems that she is intent on doing away with public education as we know it; replacing it with a private school system. However, this doesn't mean that I think these comments are the best way to address this issue. This approach only deals with half the problem: it points out how her plans are inequitable and unfair, but does nothing to solve the overall problem of how to improve the schools.

The schools do need to be improved.  Don't we all know this?  All the data has been flat for a generation.  No matter how we have tried to improve the schools, through better curriculum, better ways to judge the teachers, smaller schools, better pay, etc., nothing has worked.  Of course there are scattered successes, as I myself have been a part of, but no one would say that we now know how to solve our public school problems.

People try to excuse this by saying we have a diverse population, which makes overall success harder, but, for one, there are other countries, such as Canada, which are quite diverse and educate their entire population well, and, for another, diversity is what we do here in America.  Are we going to solve the problem by becoming less diverse?  Is that the solution we want?  If we are diverse then we have to find a diverse way to educate our children well.  Is there any other way to look at it?

People also argue that our top end, our best students, are doing as well as anyone.  Well, duh.  Everyone's top end is doing reasonably well.  It's the entire American system, though, that we want to fix, not the schools in a few select towns or even states.  The central, average level of education in this country is not improving, and hasn't been for a very long time.  That is a problem.  And that is why, of course, the conservatives have turned to their privatization schemes.  They want to find a way to improve at least some of the schools.

This problem of school improvement, though, is ignored in the liberal criticism of Ms DeVos and her friends. Instead, all the focus is on how unfair her privatization schemes would be to the average, non-wealthy, child.  Everyone wants to stop her efforts because they would destroy the equity inherent in a truly public school system.  Her plans would be unfair, and, in a certain sense, immoral.

All this may well be true, but then what?  Does this mean that we want to go back to the public school system we always had, the one whose problems started this whole discussion?  Is it the status quo that we want to return to?  That "status quo" is the problem!  We can't simply argue that the conservatives are wrong.  We also have to come up with what would be right.

This is why the conservative press is more or less laughing at the criticism of Ms DeVos. Quite rightly they find it amusing that no one on the left seems to have the slightest idea of how to improve the schools in a fully public form.  They realize that this "moral" argument about the fairness of her policies is not the main issue.   They at least have one way to improve the schools. That this method only improves some of the schools is problematic, but this still puts them ahead of the opposing liberal view, which has not way to improve any of the schools.  When the liberals say that their policies will "destroy" public education they agree; the public system is not, in fact, working.  It clearly does need to be changed.  They will continue to take this line of argument until the liberals come up with a plan for how to improve public education and keep it public.

It is not enough, then, to show that the conservative efforts to privatize the public schools would be unfair to the majority of students.  Even it that is true, it just gets us back to square one, the question of how to improve the public schools while keeping them public and equitable.  That question, as I never tire of pointing out, is religiously avoided by all, since it is clear that solving it would involve a major revision of our country, let alone of our school system.  That we are afraid to do that implies that we are never going to solve this problem of the public schools, and that the conservative agenda of privatization is going to succeed.

There is a way to make a working, equitable, public school system that would be fair for everyone, through a national school program.  Everyone knows that this would work. We just have to be brave enough to make such a fundamental change.

 

Peter Dodington

8/12/17

 

 

 

8Jul/170

Our Need for Public Education

Some time ago, my brother sent me an article from the Wall Street Journal ridiculing the excessive, the author felt, interest in the DeVos nomination to be head of the Department of Education.  Here she is, he said, in charge of one of the smallest cabinet posts, with a budget that amounts to just 3% of federal spending, and yet she is on the front page of every liberal newspaper and website in the country, and is the subject of a massive campaign to block her nomination.  Why is that?

Her position is not even that important to public education in general, since federal programs make up only about 10% of the total amount spent on the schools.  There are probably some individual states that have just about as large an educational budget.  But who knows the name of their state superintendent of public instruction?  Why is there such a fuss about this relatively unimportant federal position?

I may differ with the tone of this article, but it does have some truth to it.  There is no doubt that the general public does care more about public education than would seem reasonable.  The DeVos story is just one aspect of this.  Hardly a day goes by without some story about the schools making headlines.

This isn’t just because the schools deal with children.  You don’t see a similar level of interest in other programs for children, such as youth leagues or well-child programs.  America, in fact, is well behind most other countries in providing social programs for children.

Nor is this interest in the schools related to education in general.  If that were the case, wouldn’t there also be an interest in the private schools?  But where is this?  Do you ever see an article about a private school in the paper?  Fully 10% of our children attend these schools, but there seems to be little overall interest in them.

Rather the public is fixated on the public education aspects of these issues.  And this explains why they are so fascinated by Ms DeVos.  She is as close as we can come to having a leader of this program.  True, she is only in charge of 10% of the overall program, but who is in charge of more?  The state superintendents?  Each of them is only in charge of his or her own state, one of 50 different autonomous entities.  They have absolutely no influence on the other 49, by law.  At least there is some possibility that Ms DeVos might influence several states, not just one.  She is the best we can do in terms of the leadership of our public school system.

Putting aside for now the obvious question of why we don't have a leader for our public school system, let’s look at a more basic question:  Why do we care so much about this issue in general?  What is it about public education, in contrast to other kinds of education, and other programs for children, that makes us worry about it so?  Why do we all seem to want a better public school system?  Does it satisfy some basic need in us?

Thinking about this issue, I was reminded of a quote by Benjamin Rush, the famous Philadelphia physician and signer of the Declaration of Independence:

"Our schools of learning, by producing one general and uniform system of education, will render the mass of the people more homogenous and thereby fit them more easily for uniform and peaceable government"  (A Plan for the Establishment of Public Schools and Thoughts upon the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic (1786) p. 14).

As many have pointed out, Americans came here to accomplish their own personal goals.  They have a built-in mistrust of government programs that will tell them what to do.  They want to be free to develop their own ideas, their own way of doing things.  As Rush notes, though, they then need some help in finding ways to join together in collective activities. They don't do this naturally.  They need to find out how they agree on things; how they are similar.  Public education can do this.  It has been a way, from the start, of smoothing out all those differences that the immigrants brought with them.  It has helped make them "amenable to peaceable government."  Perhaps that is why we worry about it so much.  We can see, to some extent, that we Americans need it.

This would also help to explain why we are somewhat irrational in the intensity of our interest in public education.  We know it’s a problem for us, something we haven’t yet solved, and so are concerned with that problem; it bothers us.  But we’re not even sure there is a solution.  We like that independent and individualistic way of doing things.  Perhaps we will never find a way to join together as one homogenous country.

All the more reason, then, to worry so about it, even in a somewhat irrational way.  That, at least, is one way to deal with it.  It gives us something to do.  Maybe if we think about it long enough some solution will turn up.  That is one way to look at it.

But, of course, it is not the best way.  A better way would be to try to think through what the problem really is and then take steps to solve it.  We might start with that question of who ought to be in charge.

What this all implies, it seems to me, is that it is crucial that we solve our public school problems.  The whole issue is an integral part of our American heritage.  It’s not just a problem for the children or the parents or the teachers; it affects us all.  We really do need working public schools.

Peter Dodington

July 8, 2017

 

 

10Jun/170

Revolutionaries

 

There is an interesting paradox concerning the efforts to improve the public education system in America.  The people most interested in this effort, the intellectuals and other people most concerned with learning and education, are precisely the people least interested in having the government solve this problem.  We are all revolutionaries, fighting the good fight against big government and other agencies that will squash intellectual freedom.  The last things we want to do is turn this problem over to Washington.

But then what are we going to do?  What, then, is the plan?  Everyone is quite sure that the privatization of the schools is all wrong, and that it harms the public schools and should not be allowed, but then what?  Is the goal simply to leave these wonderful schools as they are?  Is that going to work?  Isn’t there a problem with the schools?  Aren’t the data flat for the last 50 years or so?  Don’t we need to have our own plan for how to deal with this?  We need an offense, not just a defense.

But that has to mean dealing with a government solution.  The public schools are a government program.  If you don’t want that, fine, but then you’re reading the wrong blog.  I want to talk about how we might fix the schools within their current structure, since I think that is the only structure that will work if we want to educate the entire population.  We can’t afford a private school for everyone.  So let’s fix the public school system, the one run by the various state, local and national governments.

I know, my intellectual friend, you feel that you have never learned anything through a government program.  All your learning has come from teachers who, it seemed, were quite anti-government.  Revolutionaries, like yourself.  It doesn’t seem that the government is in any way a good source of education.

But, you see, “education”, per se,  is not the problem, here.  It’s not the classroom that needs to be fixed, but the government that is organizing the classrooms.  We know how to educate; what we don’t know how to do is organize an educational system.

Suppose you want to open a restaurant.  And you say, good, let’s get in a great chef and open up.  And your friends say, wait, there’s a lot more to it than that.  You have to design the place, and figure out what the kitchen will be like, and who will be in charge, and all that stuff.  You, who have been a customer, are focused on the food, but the people actually running a restaurant have to think about much more.  There’s a structure to the whole business that has to be worked out.

That structure is the part that is not doing well in public education.  Not what’s going on in the classrooms, but what’s going on in the state legislatures, and congress, and the school boards.  We have to fix the way these governments run the schools, not the schools themselves.

But the government has never been a solution, in your experience.  They do nothing but interfere with your business or college or freedom.  And I say, that’s different.  These were private businesses or operations.  Public education, by definition, is a government-run operation.  There is no way to privately run a public school.  The only way to fix public education is to fix the government that runs it.  Government is often a problem for a private business, but it has to be the solution for a public program.

But you say, “Well, I don’t know much about these governments, especially the state ones.  They seem to be purposely set up to confuse us.”  So, is the answer then to give up?  Or should we find out more about how state governments work, since they are in charge of the school system?

When this country was founded, certainly Washington, Jefferson, et al. were true revolutionaries; they were fighting, with their lives, for freedom from big, bureaucratic, England.  But that did not mean that they were not interested in government.  The members of the Constitutional Convention thought that government was the solution, not the problem.  They firmly believed that the best way to acquire “public happiness” is through good government.  Is there something wrong with this idea?  Isn’t it still true today?

Public education is worth the trouble.  If we could do it better, not only would we find that our economy was stronger, and our health better, and the crime rate lower, but the entire level of civility throughout the country would improve.  We would be a more unified and less angry people.  That would be good.

Peter Dodington

June 10, 2017

 

27May/170

“My Father Taught Me to Be the Best”

In Homer’s Iliad, the Greek warrior Diomedes meets the Trojan prince Glaucus on the battlefield.  Diomedes, who has been killing Trojans right and left, is amazed to find one more young man coming out to fight him, and demands to know who he is.  Glaucus responds by first noting that such questions matter little in the general scheme of things, since we are "but leaves, born to die and be scattered by the wind", but, if he wishes, he will tell about himself.

He is a grandson of Bellerophon, the famous warrior who tamed Pegasus, the flying horse, and who killed the monster Chimaera and defeated the Amazons.  He then sums up who he is by saying, “My father told me over and over to always be the best, and to hold my head high so as to not disgrace my noble ancestors” (Book 6, lines 207 ff).

Today we pull back from saying we are “best” at anything.  It seems so self-centered, so haughty.  But this is not quite what Glaucus is saying.  He does not say he is the best, but that his father taught him to be the best.  He says nothing about his achievements; it’s only his attitude, his goals, that he mentions.  He’s not talking about himself as much as he is  about his relationship with his father and his relatives.  The point is not what he has done, but what his family has taught him to do, through their actions and their words.  This is how he defines himself; not by his achievements, but by his connections to his loved ones; by the aspirations and goals that his family has taught him.

Isn’t this what we want for our own children?  Not that they say “We’re number one,” but that they feel they should always try be the best at what they do; to always aim for the top and never settle for less.  This will enable them to find their own personal satisfaction, regardless of whether this involves wealth, or fame, or whatever kind of success they want.  In the words of another of my favorite authors, Thomas Jefferson, it will show them “how to work out their own greatest happiness, by showing them that it does not depend on the condition of life which chance has placed them” (Jefferson’s comments on the value of education in his Notes on Virginia).  It will lead them to the kind of internal happiness that we want for them.

How, then, could we accomplish this in today’s world?  Primarily, of course, through our own personal excellence and our interactions with our children, just as Glaucus’ father did for him.  But we also have a more communal way to foster that excellence in our children, and that is through our public school system.  It, too, can say to our children, “always be the best and hold your head up high.”

But clearly our American public school system is not saying this right now to our children.  There are isolated pockets of excellence, but overall there is a pervasive tone of of mediocre status quo throughout the schools.  All the data for a generation has put us at or near the bottom of the developed world.  The achievement scores of our students, particularly in the upper grades, have been unchanged for 50 years.

And it seems we have decided that there is little we can do to change this.   We are no longer trying to make our public schools engines of excellence.  All the new ideas are about how to make private schools for a few, not public schools for all.  We are content, it seems, to settle for something reasonably good, since we cannot find a way to make the schools excellent.  We are no longer telling, or showing, our children that they can be the best.  Rather we are saying to our children in the public schools, collectively, that we are "teaching you to be average."

I say this with all due respect for the teaching profession.  I myself taught in public schools for 40 years and certainly did not try to settle for anything like an average level of success.  But the data is there; this is where we have ended up.

My point is that our neglect of our public schools is an affront to our own beliefs of how best to raise children.  We know what we want for our children, and it is certainly not that they should go through life thinking that they are somehow average.  Why, then, settle for this in a public program?  It's our program.  We control it; it's our money, through our taxes, and its our leaders, whom we have elected, who run it.  Why not show all our children, through that program, that they can be "the best"?

 

Peter Dodington

May 27, 2017